Tag Archives: CentOS

KVM virtualization – text only CentOS guest install

It took me a little while today to figure out how to do a text only install of a CentOS guest on KVM. Previously I had started the install using virt-install and then connected to the VNC console over SSH. This is a bit of a hassle though when all you want is a quick, text based install.

So here’s how.

Firstly all of my VMs live on LVM so create a virtual disk to hold the VM. I’m creating a 20G ‘partition’ in a volume group called kvm-storage. The logical volume is called host.demo.com.

Continue reading

iptables for Asterisk and FreePBX

If you’ve installed Asterisk and FreePBX, or you’re using one of the preconfigured distributions such as Trixbox or Elastix, a good idea is to have the linux firewall, iptables, running on your system. Here’s an example of how you could set this up.

First thing to note is that it’s pretty easy to lock your self out of your server when playing around with iptables! It’s best to take a couple of simple precautions in case this happens.

These instructions should apply to CentOS/Redhat/Fedora.

Continue reading

Configuring lighttpd for use with Asterisk & FreePBX

I recently had a client that wanted to install Asterisk and FreePBX on a machine that was already running Apache so I though I’d have a go at getting it working with lighttpd instead.

It is pretty easy to setup and worked well. The instructions below are for CentOS 5.1.

Here’s how to set it up. You will probably need to alter this for your environment but it’ll be a good starting point.


You need to have already installed Asterisk and FreePBX. When installing FreePBX you should choose a unique location for the install rather than the Apache default – /var/www/html. I chose /var/www/freepbx.

Installing lighttpd

I chose to install lighttpd from rpmforge but you could just as easy compile it from source.

See here for details on setting up rpmforge – http://dag.wieers.com/rpm/FAQ.php#B

rpm -Uhv http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/i386/rpmforge/RPMS/rpmforge-release-0.3.6-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm
yum install lighttpd lighttpd-fastcgi

Lighttpd configuration file changes

Change or add the following lines from the default lighttpd configuration file

vi /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf

server.document-root       = "/var/www/freepbx"
server.port                = 81
server.username            = "asterisk"
server.groupname           = "asterisk"
server.pid-file            = "/var/run/lighttpd/lighttpd.pid"
server.modules = (  "mod_fastcgi", "mod_auth" )
fastcgi.server             = ( ".php" =>
( "localhost" =>
"socket" => "/var/run/lighttpd/php-fastcgi.socket",
"bin-path" => "/usr/bin/php-cgi"
ssl.engine                 = "enable"
ssl.pemfile                = "/etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.pem"
auth.backend = "htdigest"
auth.backend.htdigest.userfile = "/etc/lighttpd/.passwd"
auth.debug = 2
auth.require = ( "/" =>
"method" => "digest",
"realm" => "Authorized users only",
"require" => "valid-user"

Generate the SSL certificate

cd /etc/lighttpd/
openssl req -new -x509 -keyout lighttpd.pem -out lighttpd.pem -days 365 -nodes
chown asterisk:asterisk lighttpd.pem
chmod 600 lighttpd.pem

Create the password file

htdigest -c /etc/lighttpd/.passwd 'Authorized users only' bob

Set some access rights

chown -R asterisk:asterisk /var/log/lighttpd/
mkdir /var/run/lighttpd
chown -R asterisk:asterisk /var/run/lighttpd/

Start Lighttpd

chkconfig lighttpd on
service lighttpd start

And that’s it. You should now be able to connect to FreePBX on port 81 using HTTPS.

You should be asked for a username/password which, if you followed the instructions above, will be ‘bob’ and whatever password you chose.

10 steps to a Xen domU

Here’s a quick and easy way to get a CentOS Xen dom0 and domU up and running

1 – Boot using the CentOS CD

2 – When prompted for the package bundle selection just choose “Virtulization”

3 – Log into your new CentOS install as root

4 – Install the ftp server vsftpd. We’ll use this to install CentOS on our domU

yum install vsftpd
service vsftpd start

5 – Mount our CentOS CD so we can access it via FTP

mount /dev/cdrom /var/ftp

Continue reading

Where are my packets going?

If you’ve ever had a slow, unable connection to a server it could be that you’re suffering from some packet loss between you and the server.

This might not be noticeable for web browsing or e-mail but if you’re doing any sort or VOIP or gaming it can be critical to know the quality of the connection between 2 points.

A simple tool for this is mtr. This is normally included in modern Linux ditros – if you’re a RedHat/CentOS/Fedora person just run –

yum install mtr

Now you can fire it up by running –

/usr/sbin/mtr www.digg.com

Continue reading